Essential Vocabulary

 Pronunciation (for the English speaker)

a a in father
q e  in brother
u in cur (replaced by in current usage)
b  
c c in country, but before e and i as ch in chin, and before h like k in king
d  
e e in hen
f  
g g in gate, but before e and i as g in gem, before h as g in get
h almost kh
i i in machine; as a suffix, unsounded
o in lesson, but more stressed
j s in measure
l  
m  
n  
o o in soft
p  
r as the Scottish r in farm
s s in six
w sh in shelf
t t in ten
y ts in hats
u oo in wood
v  
z z in maze

Compound vowels

ai y in by
ea ya in yarn
ei ay in day
eu eh-oo
oi oy in boy
au ow in how
qu o in go
iu you
ia ya in yap
ie ye in yesterday
oa,ua wa in waft
ii  

The following appear only in foreign words and a few proper or family names -

k, q, w, x, y

Unfinished part - under construction
Obsolete letters - (most changes occurred in 1904)
  • d!            changed to z
  •           changed to ea (1904)
  • e@          changed to q (1904)
  •            changed to
  • -i@         changed to -i (1904)
  •          changed to oa (1904)
  • o@         changed to q
  • -u@        changed to -u or dropped (1904)
  •            changed to
  • -sce        changed to -wte (1904)
  • -sci@     changed to -wti (1904)

Gender

Masculine, feminine, neuter. Generally, neuter singular agrees with masculine, neuter plural agrees with feminine. Pronouns and adjectives agree with nouns in gender and quantity; adjectives are usually placed after the noun.

Articles

definite (the)

  singular plural (noun suffix)
masculine -l, -le, -ul -i
feminine -a -le

  indefinite

  singular plural (before the noun)
masculine un (a) niwte (some)
feminine o niwte

  demonstrative

  singular plural
masculine acesta (this) acewtia (these)
feminine aceasta acestea
masculine acela (that) aceia (those)
feminine aceea acelea

Possessives       placed after the noun, which also takes a definite article

  singular masc. singular fem. plural masc. plural fem.
my meu mea mei mele
your tqu ta tqi tale
his/hers/its squ sa sqi sale
our nostru noastrq nowtri noastre
your vostru voastrq vowtri voastre
their lor lor lor lor

 

Plurals (word endings)

masculine
singular
masculine
plural
feminine
singular
feminine
plural
neuter
singular
neuter
plural
consonant -i -q -e consonant -e,  -i
-q -i -e -i -i -uri
-e -i -ie -i -u -e
-i -i -ea -le -e (no pl.)
-u -i -a -le    
    -i -le    

Verb infinitive: a ajuta, to help

yes da
no nu

Connectives, prepositions, etc.

al, a of, of the (masc., fem.)
alt other
altfel otherwise
apoi then, afterwards
aproape almost, near
astfel thus
cqtre to, about
cel, cea the (masc., fem.)
cu with, by
dar but
de of
de pe off
din, de la from, out, of
dinspre from
dintre among, from, between
fqrq without
n in, into
nsq but, however
ntre between
la at
lngq near, by
niwte some
pe on
pentru for
peste over
pnq until
prin through
printre among
wi and
sau or
spre towards
sub under
un, o a (masc., fem.)
-lui (suffix) of
-ul the
-ului of the, to the (plural, -ilor)